Union Pacific Motor Cars
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This page was last updated on October 25, 2015.
A railroad Motor Car is a self-propelled railroad passenger car, at times known as a "Doodlebug." Union Pacific was a pioneer in the design and use of motor cars with the introduction of the McKeen motor car in 1905. The McKeen cars were gasoline-powered, with a mechanical transmission. Previous "motor cars" were steam-powered. General Electric became involved in 1906 with its electric transmission car, which became much more successful than McKeen's mechanical design.
The first internal-combustion rolling stock on UP was a series of self-propelled McKeen passenger cars, powered by small gasoline and distillate-fueled engines. These motor cars were designed by UP's superintendent of motive power and machinery, William McKeen, and were built beginning in 1905 by UP in the railroad's Omaha, Neb., shops. In 1908, UP organized the McKeen Motor Car Co. as a subsidiary to sell McKeen cars to other railroads, and production continued in the Omaha shops. With their distinctive wedge-nosed front ends, these cars were designed and operated as self-contained passenger trains, but by 1909, they were powerful enough to pull a trailer.
The design of the McKeen car was for a mechanical transmission, and its early success in the 1908-1910 period got the attention of other builders, including GE, and they started competing with their electric transmission designs. World War I and the USRA diverted everyone's attention, and by the time the war was over, McKeen had built his last cars; two in 1916 and two in 1917, including the unique Southern Utah no. 100, a 300 hp, six-wheel truck design that was a failure on the road's grades in Utah.
Competition for McKeen's mechanical-transmission motor cars came in 1911 when General Electric released its own design for an electric-transmission motor car. McKeen's largest vehicle, a rounded-front 300-horsepower car with a three-axle power truck, was completed in 1916 as a demonstrator for Southern Utah Railroad in Utah's Carbon County coal fields (it was delivered on January 1, 1917). The last McKeen cars were completed in 1917, which was also GE's last year for motor-car production. The production of motor cars ceased with the United States' entry into World War I.
After the war, the market for rail motor cars improved, with builders by the name of Brill and St. Louis taking the lead, and EMC coming to the market in 1924. McKeen's mechanical designs could not compete.There are stories that Union Pacific continued to support McKeen and his motor cars after Harriman's death in 1909 because Harriman's widow wished it, based on Harriman's own support of McKeen. That changed when Carl Gray became UP president in January 1920. Production formally stopped in March 1920 when Union Pacific bought out McKeen's interest in his McKeen Motor Car Co. Union Pacific completed several motor cars for itself during mid-1923, using the remaining McKeen bodies.
A growing interest for electric-transmission motor cars after the war led to the formation of Electro-Motive Corp. in 1922 to again market gas-electric motor cars to America's railroads, taking advantage of better and more powerful engines and better electrical control. In 1927, UP began buying Electro-Motive motor cars, receiving 15 cars during 1927 and 1928. Also in 1928, UP acquired two motor cars from Brill, and another two came from Brill in 1930. Several of the mechanical McKeen cars were converted to gas-electrics during the 1920s, and the last mechanical McKeen cars were retired in 1942. Electric-transmission motor cars with both gasoline engines and distillate engines remained in service on UP throughout the 1940s and 1950s, with the last one being retired in 1961.
Between 1920 and 1932, the number of passenger-miles for America's railroads had dropped by two-thirds, inversely matching the tripling of automobile registrations during the same period. The public wanted faster schedules and more comfort. To furnish faster schedules, Union Pacific needed either lighter trains or more powerful locomotives. UP chose to pursue a lighter train, based on its experience with self-propelled motor cars, with their electric transmissions and increasingly powerful distillate engines during the late 1920s. Lighter trains would also spring from developments in lightweight metals during the post-World War I years, and from aerodynamic designs for rail equipment (specifically, Pullman's Railplane of March 1933). More comfort, especially for business and upscale pleasure travelers, would come with new, more modern designs. These developments led Union Pacific in 1933 to ask for the development of the lightweight, articulated passenger train, which became known as The Streamliner. Union Pacific saw The Streamliner as the answer to what the traveling public wanted, and the first Streamliner was M-10000.
(Portions of this article were first published in 1999 in the book, "Union Pacific Diesels, 1934-1982, Volume 1" by Don Strack)
System Repair Shop
A new engine house was constructed at Grand Island, Nebraska in 1910, and at that time, Grand Island "became the major system repair point for a growing fleet of passenger motor cars. The motor cars continued to be repaired at Grand Island until the last of them were retired." (The Streamliner, Volume 2, Number 2, April 1986, page 21)
Using Distillate Fuel
Union Pacific and its subsidiary companies used gasoline in their motor cars until the mid 1920s. After that time, distillate fuel replaced gasoline as the fuel of choice due to much lower costs.
Union Pacific and other railroads were always looking to reduce costs, and "distillate" fuel was much cheaper than gasoline. Industry standards in the 1920s were not anything close to what we have now, so distillate fuel was essentially whatever the refiners said it was, and the quality of it varied considerably. The major motivation for the use of distillate fuel was cost. The price of distillate fuel was one-third to one-fourth the price of gasoline, which was about 15 cents per gallon in those days.
In the 1954 biography of Dick Dilworth, EMC's chief engineer, the author wrote about Dilworth's five-year search for an economical fuel that began in 1927. "First of all, Dilworth had to discover what a distillate was. About the best definition he could arrive at was that it was anything that didn't classify as heavy fuel oil. It might range from a low-grade gasoline, to painter's naphtha, to gas oil. In fact it was anything the refinery didn't happen to want at that particular time. The most uniform product Dilworth came across was something known as Dubbs oil, the heavy half of the pressure benzene taken off during the Dubbs cracking process. Attempting to burn this stuff in a carburetor engine, according to Dilworth, was grim business."
After five years of work in the lab, and in test installations, in 1932 Dilworth was finally able to figure it out, and patented a carburetor that allowed distillate to be used in the Winton engines used in the EMC motor cars.
When Union Pacific began using distillate fuel in about 1926-1927, they used what was known as a Duff carburetor, using the design patented by Ralph Duff in 1918. Prior to that time, UP used gasoline in its motor cars.
Using resources available today, the most common and credible modern equivalent of distillate fuel today is what is called No. 2 fuel oil, also known as home heating oil, or furnace oil.
Letter to the editor, concerning a photo in an issue of The Streamliner (Volume 14, Number 1, Winter 2000, page 10):
The photo shows a view of McKeen motor car M-23. The caption suggests that the photo was taken during a run to evaluate some device mounted to the front truck. That may be true, but I think that what it really shows is M-23 on its first trip west. Notice how shiny the car and trailer are (sticky fresh, as some would say). The photo is dated May 17, 1915. Available records show that M-23 was built in May 1915.
This photo is unique because it shows the first use of the M prefix to the motor cars, since M-23 was the first car built after the 1915 renumber plan was put into place. All of the cars built before that time, from UP 1 (in 1905) to UP 22 (in 1909), were later renumbered to their M series numbers.
In the Spring 2001 issue of The Streamliner, Don Lodge wrote a letter to the editor:
"The McKeens were gas mechanical and thus cannot be considered direct predecessors of the early Streamliners. In fact, the McKeen cars might be thought of as one of a number of dead ends in the history of self-propelled rail cars."
"The first Union Pacific gas electric cars came in 1927. These were M-29 and M-30, built in the company shops from unused McKeen parts, and M-31 to M-35, built by St. Louis Car for EMC. According to Keilty, the shop-built "McKeens" utilized four unused car sides, Hall-Scott gas engines, and electrical components from General Electric. It was the electrical parts from GE that were critical to these cars' success."
"GE's pioneering work in designing a method of tieing together the control of a gasoline engine and an electric generator led to the modern day diesel locomotive."
Union Pacific purchased full control and interest of the McKeen Motor Car Company in March 1920. (Associated Press, Kingsport Times, September 5, 1922)
William Riley McKeen held several patents for designs used on his motor cars.
- Patent 809,317, dated January 9, 1906, for "car frame"
- Patent 809,974, dated January 16, 1906, for "truss frame for cars"
- Patent 817,658, dated April 10, 1906, for a "heating and ventilating mechanism"
- Patent 849,916, dated April 9, 1907, for a "unloading device for pump inlet valves"
- Patent 855,524, dated June 4, 1907, for "clutch"
- Patent 862,186, dated August 6, 1907, for "power controlling mechanism"
- Patent D38,785, dated September 3, 1907, for "car body"
- Patent D38,786, dated September 3, 1907, for "car body"
- Patent D38,860, dated October 15, 1907, for "car body"
- Patent 874,419, dated December 24, 1907, for a "clutch mechanism"
- Patent D39,032, dated January 21, 1908, for "car body"
- Patent 937,844, dated October 6, 1909, for "power controlling apparatus"
- Patent 940,349, dated November 16, 1909, for "engine valve"
- Patent 972,467, dated October 11, 1910, for "car frame"
- Patent 972,708, dated October 11, 1910, for "car structure"
- Patent 973,365, dated October 18, 1910, for "power transmitting apparatus"
- Patent 973,366, dated October 18, 1910, for "car body construction"
- Patent 973,502, dated October 25, 1910, for "car window"
- Patent 973,531, dated October 25, 1910, for "truck construction"
- Patent 980,546, dated January 3, 1911, for "motor truck construction"
- Patent 986,734, dated March 14, 1911, for "lubricating apparatus"
- Patent 1,002,597, dated September 5, 1911, for "power controlling mechanism"
- Patent 1,017,008, dated February 13, 1912, for "engine"
- Patent 1,052,938, dated February 11, 1913, for "safety device"
- Patent 1,065,262, dated June 17, 1913, for "internal combustion engine"
- Patent 1,079,255, dated November 18, 1913, for "internal combustion engine"
- Patent 1,095,656, dated May 5, 1914, for an "ignition timer for reversible gas engines"
- Patent 1,101,705, dated June 30, 1914, for "internal combustion engine"
- Patent 1,107,086, dated August 11, 1914, for "car construction"
- Patent 1,111,915, dated September 29, 1914, for "motor truck"
- Patent 1,113,457, dated October 13, 1914, for a "car heating apparatus"
- Patent 1,159,692, dated November 9, 1915, for "starting mechanism"
- Patent 1,191,979, dated July 16, 1916, for "truck construction"
- Patent 1,229,492, dated June 12, 1917, for a "charge preparing apparatus"
McKeen also filed a patent for a weed cutter for railway equipment, Patent 830,163, dated September 4, 1906.
Mr. McKeen Meets Dr. Diesel
Chris Baer wrote to the R&LHS discussion group on December 18, 2014:
There is a story concerning the movements of Rudolf Diesel on his U.S. tour. A local journalist wrote an account of him visiting some small town to check out a McKeen car. This story was printed many years later in Railroad Magazine and then reprinted almost whole as a chapter in a Diesel biography, the journalist still being alive as an old man. The problem is, when you check the New York Times as to when Diesel actually left Hamburg and arrived in New York, he would have either had to time travel or teleport to get to whatever transmississippi state to make the visit at the stated time. Either the dates were erroneous, or the whole thing was a journalistic fabrication. The fact that the same book had Diesel returning to Europe on the Berengaria, a German liner given to Cunard as reparations for the Lusitania well after Diesel's death, and which did not yet exist even in its original German form, calls the whole thing into question. It would require access to St. Louis papers, which I don't have, to get a contemporary tracking of Diesel's movements, but clearly something is amiss.
Kyle Wyatt wrote to the R&LHS discussion group on December 19, 2014:
The story goes that Dr. Diesel met E. H. Harriman at the St Louis fair 1904 opening. Reportedly after leaving St Louis, Dr Diesel visited the Southern Pacific, including the Sacramento Shops, as a guest of Harriman. We'd need to cross-check timing on McKeen car development and Dr. diesel's travel schedule, but it is possible he might have seen one of the first Union Pacific McKeen prototype cars while en route to or from California. McKeen car #1 was completed in March 1905; #2 in September 1905; and #3 in November 1905. #1 was 31 feet long; #2-3 were 55 feet long. #2-3 seem unlikely, but depending on timing Dr. Diesel might have seen #1 - maybe while under construction in Omaha - to the national press, Omaha might have been considered a "small town", I suppose.
Also note that in 1904-05 Southern Pacific had a diesel-electric locomotive under construction by American Locomotive Company and General Electric. Dr. Diesel would very likely have visited that, or at least had discussions about it, since he advocated using diesel engines in locomotives and had ideas on the subject. Perhaps it was confused with the McKeen car in news accounts. Some articles refer to the locomotive as a "rail car". The SP diesel loco was ultimately unsuccessful - it was never placed in service, and disappeared from news accounts in the Spring of 1905.
Motor Cars In Utah
(incomplete; more to be added)
OSL began using a 100-passenger motor car for service on the Cache Valley branches. To connect with through trains that ran through Cache Junction, one round trip was made between Cache Junction and Preston, Idaho, each day, and two round trips were made between Cache Junction and Logan each day. The motor train operation was in addition to regular steam trains which continued to make their scheduled truns. (Box Elder County News [Brigham City], July 27, 1911)
W. R. McKeen Biographical Information
William R. McKeen -- Biographical notes for W. R. McKeen, as part of the story of the men who led UP's mechanical department.
Motor Car Roster -- A roster of Union Pacific's motor cars, including the McKeen cars, the EMC cars, the Brill cars, and the cars that UP itself built.
Carter, Clive. "Union Pacific Self-Propelled Cars" Mainline Modeler, June 1998, Volume 19, Number 6, pages 20-27. (link to text)
Keilty, Ed. "Union Pacific" Doodlebug Country (Interurban Press, 1982), pages 169-178. (link to text)
Keilty, Ed. "McKeen Motor Car Co." Interurbans Without Wires (Interurban Press, 1979), page 48 (link to text)
Keilty, Ed. "Electro-Motive Corp." Interurbans Without Wires (Interurban Press, 1979), page 109 (link to text)
Kratville, William, and Harold E. Ranks. "Meet Mr. McKeen" Motive Power of the Union Pacific (Barnhart Press, 1977) page 123. (link to text)
Wikipedia, McKeen Motor Car Company
McKeen Motor Car Co. -- An online bibliography of McKeen Motor Car information.